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Sunday, 22 March 2009

Direct and Reported Speech

You can answer the question "What did he/she say?" in two ways:

* by repeating the words spoken (direct speech)
* by reporting the words spoken (indirect or reported speech).

A. Direct Speech

Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between inverted commas ("....") and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that's being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), or telling someone later about a previous conversation


She says "What time will you be office?"
She said "What time will you be office?"
and I said "I don't know! "
"There's a fly in my soup!" screamed Simone.
John said, "There's a buffalo outside the window."

B. Reported Speech

Reported speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like 'say', 'tell', 'ask', and we may use the word 'that' to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are not used.

She said, "I saw him." She said that she had seen him.

1. 'That' may be omitted:
She told him that she was sad.
She told him she was sad.

2. 'Say' and 'tell':
Use 'say' when there is no indirect object:
He said that he was tired.

Always use 'tell' when you say who was being spoken to (i.e. with an indirect object):
He told me that he was tired.
'Talk' and 'speak' are used:
- to describe the action of communicating:
He talked to us.
She was speaking on the telephone.
- with 'about' to refer to what was said:
He talked (to us) about his parents.

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